CONTACT Daniel Lim

Celebrating 10th year of DesignJournalSOS! Thanks for all your support. Hope this blog will continue to serve you well.
Contact Daniel Lim: mrdanielsos@yahoo.com.sg
Need help? You have a question? You have a request? You wish to feedback or give suggestions? Individual or group coursework consultation is available.
Email mrdanielsos@yahoo.com.sg
or send me a message via Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mrdanielsos for more information
Note: It is compulsory to leave your school, your name and level & stream (e.g. Sec 2NA, Sec 3E, attempting 'N' or 'O' Level) when emailing for enquiries or when requesting for coursework consultations through email. Otherwise I will not respond to you. Do note that response from me via mail consultation may take a few days to a week depending on my schedule.
P.S. Before you email me with your questions, please help yourself with the subject or topics you have difficulty with from the hyperlink labels on the right of this blog page first. You may end up not needing to email me for help. However if my posts did helped you, I would love to receive a note from you.
Click HERE for a complete Self-help listing of ALL the Design Components for Design Journaling.
Click HERE for "Cheat Sheet for Identifying Design Need Situation Opportunity"

What’s ‘LIVE’ and Ongoing in this blog now:
1) Pictorial Idea Generation and Development [last update 28 July 2017]
2) Beefing up Student's Work - Tackling Common Mistakes [last update 7 July 2017]
3) Phone Holder – Drawing Ideas & Grid Method [last update 14 July 2017]

Disclaimer: All information posted in this blog are original unless otherwise stated and remains valid for as long as I have not yet thought of a better way to present them. They are not meant to be prescriptive and used rigidly without forethought.
Students are strongly encouraged to apply the principles in their design journey with discretion.
Sketches DigitalArt Bike Drones Cats: https://www.instagram.com/daniellimsketch/
Copyright © 2007 - 2017 by Daniel Lim.





14 July 2017

Phone Holder - Drawing Ideas & Grid Method



The above shows class demo example on how to draw characters to 'act' as phone holders for a new Phone Holder Design Project.


If you can't draw something like an action, in this case a man pushing, go to the internet and search for some examples. Can't draw Panda lying on its back? Search for one. I keyed in 'Pushing Action', or 'Man Pushing', or any keywords that will help you find exactly what you need. Another way is to get your friend to pose for you while you sketch him/her on your paper.


A few points to note:
  • The 30 degrees tilt is an angle that was obtained from existing similar products. This can save a bit of time to find out the optimum viewing angle.
  • When the 30 degree tilt line is drawn on a piece of Jelutong measuring 120mm x 120mm, it happens to measure close to 70mm from the top edge. Use the 70mm mark to draw the remaining square template.
  • Characters will be sketched on a piece of Jelutong measuring 120mm x 120mm. Tilt line at 30 degrees is pre-drawn on the ideation boxes so any characters drawn or parts that will touch the phone will be readily angled.
  • Notice how each hopeful character is drawn on the square templates? Remember to maximise space when drawing in your design or characters. Make sure all sections are thick enough, so they do not break easily after shaping or during use. A good guide is to make sure all thinner parts measure at least 15mm-20mm across.
  • For the base of each character, make sure 'legs' or any parts touching the bottom must measure at least 25mm. This is to allow enough space for a countersunk head screw to be installed at the end during assembly. (See example below).
  • Before you shape the Jelutong with a scroll saw, remember to take note of the positions of the countersunk head screws at the bottom of the workpiece. (See example below).

Using Grid Method to transfer selected design onto Jelutong Workpiece.

07 July 2017

Beefing up Student's Work - Tackling Common Mistakes

Below are samples of my students works at the development stage. 'Beefing' up is done on my iPad Pro after a photo is taken off the relevant pages. Some 'beefing' up is prepared before the lesson, some done live in class. Student's original A3 works on paper are untouched.

Summary of examples:
Student's work (1):
Lots of a variety of sketches but not catogorised with suitable sub-titles. Making understanding difficult. Beefing up on development sketches focusing on selected features from a solution.
 
Student's work (2):
Student sketched parts with changes from one to the other without referencing to the solution. Making page look like a catalogue of parts. Beefing up includes sketching in pens/pencils on the improved features.
 
Student's work (3):
Student had difficulty sketching in pens/pencils inclined at an angle on an isometric block. Beefing up includes suggestions to overcome (temporarily) lacking in skills to sketch using a 2-dimesional approach.
 
Student's work (4):
Student sketched in 2D and thinks the process of development is complete. However sketches in 2D fail to show how a product/object is like in real world 3D form. Beefing up includes two ways to represent a 2D shape three dimensions - a flat organic shape or a spherical organic shape. (using contour lines to represent surface curvature).
 
Student's work (5):
Student's work shows a variety of modifications to the size of a part of the solution. However all of the sketches did not show what it is suppose to hold. Beefing up includes showing items that is being held and what other additional supplementary sketches can pop up after including items.
 
Student's work (6):
This example is one of the most common mistake students make. Almost every student make the mistake of drawing the items to be held / stored on the holder too tiny. It can be very comical when the product is drawn in real size while keeping the proportions of the size of the pen/pencils held in there. Beefing up includes sketches of pens/pencils appropriately sized for the proposed holder.


Student's work (1)
Student submitted this page of development (on shapes).
At a glance one could not quickly tell the differences for each of the variations made in the page.

A suggestion to categorise specific focus for modifications.
Tips: Highlight intent with quick notes to inform reader (marker) what is being done.

I extracted a section of the student's work for a live demonstration on how presentation of sketches could be made more obvious. Focusing on variations for the 'legs' of the product I exaggerating the sizes to show 'changes' and how those changes affects the looks of the original solution. 
Important: At the end of the exercise a decision must be made to select the best combination.


Another demonstration showing various options for the body.
And how changes can affect the other parts of the solution.

Student's work (2)
When I saw this I thought I saw a catalogue of hardware parts.
Picking parts of a product and drawing variations out of them in silo does not help in design development. There is not way to visually assess how the overall product will look like when fitted with each of those variations.

Suggestion to draw parts with the body remaining constant. i.e. no change in shape or size. Only varying size of 'wing' and how it can subsequently affect the way it hold pens/pencils.

Student's work (3)
Student came to me with difficulty sketching in pens/pencils at an angle on a 3D block.

My suggestions: Student can sketch them in later (or after teacher's intervention). However at that 'stuck' moment, one way to get out is to draw the same solution on its 'Side View'. It is clear that once it is sketched on its side view, drawing pens / pencils at an angle becomes more manageable. With some help and more demonstration the student should be able to draw pens/pencils into the 3D block.

Student's work (4)
This example shows how a sketch can be taken further. Many students end up with a 2D sketch and expect that it is sufficient for development. The problem with a 2D sketch is that it does not show if this solution is a flat (block) or a spherical organic form.

A solution must eventually be presented with its third dimension be it using the isometric, perspective, or oblique method or in orthographic forms. Unless product is a printed image on paper.

Here I demonstrated very quickly how this 2D whale shape can either be a flat Isometric or a spherical organic form. 
Tips: Drawing contour lines on a spherical organic form is critical in showing curvature.
 
Student's work (5)
 
This student followed the instruction to draw variations of the parts (in this example the wings). However he has forgotten to include what the wings are for? That is to hold pens/pencils. But they are no where to be found. Therefore making proposed sketches meaningless.
 
Bottom right shows teacher's intervention to show how pens/pencils could be added and how the shapes and sizes of the wings  may affect the total number of pens/pencils and/or the way they are being slotted in.

Student's work (6)
Every time when I see students draw like this, I like to show them how HUGE their proposed design is relative to the objects they are holding. Usually my students will go 'WOW! I didn't know I drew them so BIG?"

On the right of the page is how BIG the product will be like. At the bottom right is an example how big the pens/pencils' should be drawn instead. You must have a good sense of proportion between the holder and what will be held/stored in it.
 
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If my posts helped you in one way or another, I would like to hear from you.
If you have feedbacks or suggestions or differing in views I would like to hear from you too.

30 June 2017

Pictorial Idea Generation and Development

This post is an extension and a supplement to "Coursework Experiential Journal Component 2016 Example" that was originally created as a guide and reference material for my Secondary 3NA student mini coursework. I will not repeat information I have already posted previously.

What you'll see in this post are pictorial/visual examples on Development (and refinements) in a design journal. The examples do not represent any complete section of a journal. They serve as a starting point - an example - a demonstration - a suggestion - a recommendation - etc. to show what sort of contents may go into, say development, and how you can present your research and information in the journal. 
 
Use them as a reference and a guide to start or to improve your journal. Make informed choices on your own on what your takeaways should be after looking at the materials in here. Do not copy. 
 

If you find this helpful, I would love to hear from you. If you have suggestions, please do not hesitate to link up with me.
 
Topics you'll find below:
1) Ideas Generation (SAMPLES) using Existing Products as Starter/Inspirations [Updated 39 June 2017]
2) Selecting (SAMPLES) Best Idea for Development (using Decision Matrix) [Updated 39 June 2017]
3) DEVELOPMENT [SHAPE AND FORM] [Updated 39 June 2017]
4) DEVELOPMENT (SHAPE & FORM and FUNCTIONALITY [Updated 27 July 2017]
5) DEVELOPMENT (Determine SIZES with CRITICAL DIMENSIONS) [Updated 28 July 2017]
6) DEVELOPMENT (Determine SIZES with ANTROPOMETRIC DATA) [updated 28 July 2017]
 
Ideas Generation (SAMPLES) using Existing Products as Starter/Inspirations
(email me for more details to learn about using Existing Products as Starter/Inspirations for Ideas Generation)
 

First two images shows ideas generation using existing products as initial source of inspirations. Existing products used have nothing to do with stationary holders.

Image above shows ideas combined to create a new hybrid. This is one of the outcomes you want to have when generating ideas. Combining ideas can give you unexpected interesting solutions.
 
Selecting (SAMPLES) Best Idea for Development
(using Decision Matrix)
(email me for more details to learn about using the above)
 
 
The Decision Matrix is one of the most convenient way to select a best idea from a few good ones. Here I selected five ideas for consideration where one of them will be selected for development. I set a few criterion what makes up the attributes for considering the best idea. Then use weightage and ratings for each idea for computation.
 
 
The above example shows Idea 4 scoring the highest.
Idea 4 will be redrawn for development. See below.


Development (SAMPLES) using Attribute Listing / Morphological Method
 
DEVELOPMENT [SHAPE AND FORM]
 
(email me for more details to learn about using the above)


Attribute Listing or Morphological Analysis (and also SCAMPER) are not just Ideation tools. They can also be used for refinement purposes.
 
Individual parts / features are selected one at a time to make changes one change at a time. E.g. I pick the body to make changes to shapes and forms. Then I refer to the Morphological table and looked under, say 'Shape', that could be circle, square or a triangle, etc. I proceed to change the body cross-section to the various shapes - just to see how my original selected idea might look like with different cross-sectional shapes. At this moment I would also need to consider the overall functionality as while you change anything, in this case the cross-sectional shape, the change will affect the way it works (or how it will be holding/storing the pens or pencils) or how the 'legs' should be installed, etc.
 
When developing a product's shape and form you MUST always keep in mind the idea of working towards finalising (e.g. the shape, size, dimensions, colors, jointing methods, etc) a solution in mind. This is NOT like in the exploratory mode when you were generating ideas earlier on.

Above is an example of my student's chosen idea for development. I made use of the attributes for each part of the object (in this case the difference parts of the fish) and made a couple more refinements on its shape and form. NOTE: What is not shown in the above example are placement pens and pencils within each possible variety of shapes. You should put them in.
 
DEVELOPMENT (SHAPE & FORM and FUNCTIONALITY)
 
Shown on the right is a sample of how I draw a decision in Isometric 3-dimensions.
 
Developing a solution's shape and form without considering its functionality is quite useless. A simple way to consider functionalities is to draw your pens or pencils and/or rulers into your proposed holders (or whatever you may be designing for)  in every iterations that you make along the way. Doing so enables you to think about how effective the new solution are holding or storing the items. And in turn may inspire you to make further changes or improvements to the shape and form to achieve better functionalities. - see image below. [Updated 26 July 2017]
 
Note that other aspects like ergonomics, sizes, materials, jointing methods, etc. that will come into play whenever any shapes and form is changed is not specifically discussed here. However you should start to consider them simultaneously if these considerations appear as you develop the product.  For example, the moment I change the inverted triangular cross-section body into a rounded rectangular cross-sectional body, it may require a change of materials or jointing methods. Further development by making it a laminated piece also require decisions of materials. If there will be a change of materials there might be a change of the way of jointing. etc.  [Updated 27 July 2017]
 
 
 
The image above is an extension of further refinement focusing on the main body of the holder. And showing how any changes in shape can affect functionality (and also the choice of materials and manufacturing methods).
 
DEVELOPMENT 
(Determine SIZES with CRITICAL DIMENSIONS)
 
Use of Critical Dimensions
There will come to a point in the development phase where it's time to work out the dimensions of each parts and eventually the overall dimensions of the product. There are three possible ways you can obtain those data:
 
1) Use of Critical Dimensions (i.e. the objects that the product is holding/storing/interacting with) to determine the sizes of space needed, leading to the sizes of the parts making up the solution.
2) Use of Anthropometric Data (i.e. the measurement of relevant body parts and its relative end positions) to determine the critical height (e.g. for the height of a seat, or for the tallest shelve, etc.) of certain parts/features or the overall (max. or min.) dimensions of a solution.
3) Use of the area / volume of the Environmental Space of which the product will be used or placed. Usually you'll have a maximum or minimum allowable space for the new solution. This can be a good starter to set a minimum or maximum size for your new solution.
 
In the example above, I know I need to place some pencils. So I use the diameters of my pencils laid side by side to determine the width of the storage space. I want to stack the pencil up to maximum 2 layer. So I use twice the diameter of a typical pencil to determine what the minimum height of the 'side panels' should be. Which I eventually round it off to 20mm.
 
To get Critical Dimension data, you simply measure off (and take average of similar ones) relevant features of the items that is going to be held or stored. In this case the average diameter and length of a pencil seemed very critical for me to determine the area of the 'body' and the height of the 'side panels' (to prevent the pencils from falling off sideways.
 
I found a tabulated table from the internet and used that as my reference. (Note that I acknowledged the source.) [Updated 28 July 2017]
 
DEVELOPMENT 
(Determine SIZES with ANTROPOMETRIC DATA)
 
Use of Anthropometric Data
There are times where anthropometric data will be required for determining sizes. Especially where user interaction is the primary function of the solution. A good example will be designing of a Hammer. You'll need an average data surrounding the internal diameter of a grip and the width of a palm in order to decide on optimum diameter of the handle of the hammer. You may also have to differentiate male and female body dimensions depending on who your target audience is. Or even more detailed to determining dimensions from a particular age group and sex (e.g. Adult (30-40yo) - Male, Elderly (65-75yo) - Female) and even to where he/she comes from (e.g. Asia, European countries, etc). For classroom practice, use your classmates as your model and average.

The example shown above is not complete. I want to make use of Anthropometric Data to decide on the best overall size for my new solution. So that if I need to move it around, it will be comfortable to be picked up with my bare hands. The size and weight must feel right. Which part of my body should I measure? Can you work it out on your own?

Compare the result with data and size decision made using Critical Dimension data. Combine both data together to get a conclusive optimum overall size. [Updated 28 July 2017]

Conclusion:
A decision will have to be made for every stage of refinement, be it shape and forms, proportions, size and dimensions, jointing and construction methods, colors, or finishing, etc. Eventually at the end of the development phase, you will have all the information and data ready for producing your working drawings and production schedule.

20 March 2017

Pictorial Theme Definition to Design Specifications

What you'll see in this post are visual examples on 
  1. Theme Definition
  2. Mindmap on the Theme (exploring the theme)
  3. Theme Board 
  4. Tips on how to use a mind map to identify Design Needs/Situations
  5. Identifying and drafting Design Needs/Situations 
  6. Selecting Design Need / Situation for coursework
  7. Design Brief
  8. Design Considerations
  9. Design Specifications
  10. (a) Pictorial Idea Generation and Development (Using SCAMPER) (Click here)
  11. (b) Pictorial Idea Generation and Development (Using Attribute Listing / Morphological Method) (Click here).
Disclaimer: These examples do not represent any complete section of a journal. Elaboration for each of these examples are conducted in my class and will not be written here. They serve as a starting point - an example - a demonstration - a suggestion - a recommendation - etc. to show what sort of contents may go into, say mindmapping, and how you can present your research and information in the journal. 

Use them as a reference and a guide to start or to improve your journal. Make informed choices on your own on what your takeaways should be after looking at the materials in here. Do not copy. 

If you find this helpful, I would love to hear from you. If you have suggestions, please do not hesitate to link up with me. If you would like me to explain to you please drop me a mail for a request.
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Theme Definition

 Define the theme using either online or physical dictionaries. Use a variety of sources for richer scope of definition.

Including synonyms and antonyms helps. Antonyms give the opposite meanings of the defined word - which is exactly what you need for exploring design opportunities. 

Add photos and images to substantiate some keywords - images also serve to spice up the page - makes understanding the definitions faster at a glance.

Mindmap on the Theme (exploring the theme)


Every stage in the design journal is build up from the previous section. If you defined your theme diligently and understood it perfectly, you will have little problem mapping out the theme.

End the mindmap with identified objects followed by a brief description of the problems or issues associated with them. 

These 'comments' at the end becomes your identified design need and situations. Which you simply extract and write them formally in your Design Needs and Situations section.

Theme Board

A theme board is a collage of images/products/activities to illustrate what the theme means. There is no need for annotations or descriptions in a theme board. 

Remember that you got to understand and define the theme first before doing this. Use the keywords you discovered about the theme and find related images for the theme board.

You can use the completed theme board to help you in your mind map later (see below). Use the same theme board to help you identify potential problems or issues.

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Tips on how to use a mind map to identify Design Needs/Situations



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Identifying and drafting Design Needs/Situations


Identifying and drafting your Design Needs and Situation section should not be difficult because all the information you need are already in your mind map (see above tips on how to use a mind map to identify design opportunities).

Pick and choose the information you need and rephrase them in a paragraph or two stating clearly the context and the problems / issues. Finish off with a 'wish list' - that will pave your way to writing a design brief (see below).

Selecting Design Need / Situation for coursework + Design Brief

I use a modified Plus, Minus and Interesting (PMI) method to help select a Design Situation to work on later. You can use any other decision making techniques to do this.



Here the Design Need and Situation is repeated. Fine tune your paragraph if needed.


A design brief is quickly drafted by rephrasing the 'wish list' at the end of the Design Need and Situation paragraph.

Design Considerations


The design Consideration and Limitations (or constraints) is where you list out general points on what should be considered during the Ideaiton stage. Begin a mind map surfacing very general areas like e.g. functionalities - then move on to describe what do you expect in terms of functions.

The further you are from the core (centre of the mind map) the more specific you become. You'll reach a point at the far end where you need to research for data to be included. e.g. if it has to hold some pens, then research how many exactly do you need. 5 pens?

These quantifiable specific data / information you have at the end of the Design Considerations and Limitation mind map (again) automatically becomes a preview of your Design Specifications (see below).

Design Specifications

Remember you read in the previous sections that whatever comes after in your design journal stage, some, if not most of the information should come from the previous section. 

If you did your Design Considerations and Limitations as suggested above, making a list of Design Specifications is a breeze. All the information you need and want is already available and researched. 

Extract your quantifiable and researched data / information and then transform them into Design Specification points. Categories and order your Design Specifications beginning with Functional specifications. A typical design specification begins with 'The product must...'

Note that these points in turn becomes your guide for Ideation (see below).

Pictorial Idea Generation and Development (Using SCAMPER) 2016 (Click here)

18 August 2016

Working Drawing: How to Draw Dimension Lines for Orthographic Projection in PowerPoint 2013

You asked for it. So here it is.

This video tutorial shows steps to draw dimension lines and arrows in a Microsoft PowerPoint 2013. It assumes you already have a First Angle Orthographic Projection (either hand drawn or via Google SketchUp) image ready for import into the Powerpoint slide.




Create Presentation Board using Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2013. (Click here).
(DIGITAL) How to draw Phone Holder in Google SketchUp 8 (Click here).
(ANALOG) How to draw Isometric / Orthographic view for Phone Holder (Click here).

17 August 2016

How to create your Presentation Board using PowerPoint Slides

This video shows six A3 landscape powerpoint slides on the various components that goes into a presentation board. If you print all the A3 pages out, that will make three A2 sized board.

The contents are suggestions only and must not be copied without forethought. Information are (deliberately presented) incomplete. Please consult your teacher.




(DIGITAL) How to draw Phone Holder in Google SketchUp 8 (Click here).
(ANALOG) How to draw Isometric / Orthographic view for Phone Holder (Click here).

15 August 2016

Phone holder Isometric | Orthographic | Assembly

In this document, I show how I 

a) Draw an isometric drawing of a phone holder. Label the parts and use the references in a Material List.


b) Use an overlay over the isometric drawing drawn in (a) to draw an assembly (exploded) drawing. I roughly marked the key points on the overlay and then rule them over to finish.


c) Draw a First Angle Orthographic Projection of the Phone Holder.


Note: It is actually easier to complete the First Angle Orthographic Projection first. You can then use the dimensions to draw on an isometric surface for the top profile. Use of the grid method is another convenient alternative. In this example I drew the isometric drawing first. 


You may also use 3D softwares to help you achieve the same effect see '

Step by step guide to draw a phone holder using Google SketchUp 8.'


View PDF steps for the above examples below:




Step by step guide to draw a phone holder using Google SketchUp 8.

I am not a pro. This is my first time drawing on Google SketchUp 8. So you might find faster and a more efficient way to draw those features of this two parts phone holderThis phone holder has a top wooden part to prop a phone at 30 degrees from the vertical and an acrylic formed bottom. Two screws jointing the two materials from the bottom are not show in this tutorial.


An example of an Isometric view for Labeling of Parts and Material List references

An example of First Angle Orthographic Projection for dimensions

An example of Presentation Drawing showing only the solution and the product in use

.....................................................................................................................................

3D softwares like the Google Sketchup 8 is an excellent tool to produce and render drawings quickly. Very handy when it comes to creating 3D Isometric, 3D Assembly (or Exploded) Drawings and 2D Orthographic views to be included in your Presentation Boards. Not forgetting you can also use the same model together with the wealth of 3D warehouse to create your contextual presentations.

However, one must understand that using digital software for drawings are but an extension of our analogue drawing abilities. Drafting, preliminary ideas and the initial stages of refinement still require a substantial amount of quick and successive sketches with annotations. The software like the Google Sketchup 8 is good for presenting an end product after the refinement stage.

I  prefer to draw by hand if given a choice for Isometric and Orthographic Projections and whatever is necessary. It's not difficult actually.

Click below and you will find a PDF format for the steps to draw the smart phone holder.

Click below and you will find a YouTube video of the same steps to draw the smart phone holder.


Analog Drawing of the Phone Holder here: 

Phone holder Isometric | Orthographic | Assembly

28 July 2016

How to copy complex shapes + Converting 2D shape to (flat) Isometric 3D form

Drawing is easy. You just need to know how.

Here is an example on how you can copy a complex drawing easily. Look at the object and ask yourself what shapes do you see inside it. How big is this shape compared to the other one. 
 

3-dimensional drawings, especially flat ones, are also easy to draw. You'll first need a 2D drawing to copy from. Use the grid method to mark out your reference points. Draw an isometric surface and transfer those references point for point. If you draw 1:1 scale you simply measure the distances and mark your references. Finally draw isometric projection lines of equal length from the edges and join the lines up.
 

12 July 2016

Pictorial Idea Generation and Development (Using SCAMPER)

Updated on 2nd August 2016

This post is an extension and a supplement to "Coursework Experiential Journal Component 2016 Example" that was originally created as a guide and reference material for my Secondary 3NA student mini coursework. I will not repeat information I have already posted previously.

What you'll see in this post are pictorial/visual examples on Ideas Generation and Development (and refinements) in a design journal. The examples do not represent any complete section of a journal. They serve as a starting point - an example - a demonstration - a suggestion - a recommendation - etc. to show what sort of contents may go into, say development, and how you can present your research and information in the journal. 

Use them as a reference and a guide to start or to improve your journal. Make informed choices on your own on what your takeaways should be after looking at the materials in here. Do not copy. 

If you find this helpful, I would love to hear from you. If you have suggestions, please do not hesitate to link up with me.

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Idea Generation / Ideation

Use of photos and images are starter and triggers for more ideas. In this case images of animals. Design Brief is about a storage solution that will appeal to children, that will motivate them to keep their toys.


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Development / Refinement (Using SCAMPER)

Refining Shape & Form of a selected idea / concept. Some suggested ways that may help you start the process. Interestingly I use S.C.A.M.P.E.R. for this. Now you know S.C.A.M.P.E.R. need not be used only for ideation, but a great tool for development too.



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Development / Refinement

Refining Jointing Methods on the various parts of the selected idea / concept. Some suggested ways that may help you start the process.



A quick summary on the decisions made for refinement of shapes & forms is quickly drawn at the top of the page. Three areas are then identified that require decision on the most suitable type of jointing methods. 


The page above shows examples on how options for different types of joints can be presented in the journal.


It's always a good practice to summarise all of your decisions every sections. (Above) To have a clearer overview of what I have done so far about jointing methods for the whole product, I consolidate decisions about the types of jointing methods selected for the various parts and draw them as a complete product..

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Development / Refinement

Refining Overall Size and Proportions based on Anthropometric Data and Critical Dimensions. 



 To develop the storage size and dimensions , the product height, overall size and other detailed sizing of the other parts of the product, I identified and made a list on the areas that I need to decide on. Then proceed to work out each of one of them using researched Anthropometric data as well as Critical dimensions.

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Development / Refinement

Stay tuned for : materials, etc...

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Phone Holder - Drawing Ideas & Grid Method

The above shows class demo example on how to draw characters to 'act' as phone holders for a new Phone Holder Design Project. ...